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Informal Entrepreneurship

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Informal entrepreneurship refers to economic activity that occurs outside of the formal economy, which is typically characterized by the absence of legal and regulatory frameworks. This type of entrepreneurship is often associated with small-scale, unregistered, and unregulated businesses that operate in the informal sector. The informal economy is made up of a diverse range of activities, including street vending, artisanal production, and home-based businesses, among others. While these businesses may provide a means of livelihood for individuals and communities, they often face significant barriers to growth and sustainability due to their lack of access to formal financing, legal protections, and other resources. In contrast, the formal economy is the part of the economy that is recognized and regulated by government institutions. Companies and entrepreneurs operating in the formal economy are required to pay taxes, adhere to labour laws and regulations, and obtain necessary licens

Slacker theory of entrepreneurship

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Do slackers have an advantage in entrepreneurship? This theory is passed around more as rumor than formal theoretical framework. The theory starts with a premise about how entrepreneurial ventures come about. Entrepreneurial opportunities are viewed as difficult to discover or create, requiring a lot of time and trial and error. Perhaps slacker have nothing more important to do, allowing them the resilience to keep trying, even after repeated failures.   Perhaps individuals who are not particularly motivated or hardworking can still become successful entrepreneurs. By embracing a more laid-back approach to work, entrepreneurs may find creative and innovative solutions to problems that others might overlook. The idea of the slacker theory of entrepreneurship challenges the conventional wisdom that success in business requires long hours and a relentless work ethic. Instead, it suggests that entrepreneurs who are willing to take risks and think outside the box can find success even if t

Feminist Theory of Entrepreneurship

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How can feminist theory enlighten us about entrepreneurship? For the most part, women entrepreneurs are in the minority, and they are less likely to be funded by venture capitalists. This naturally leads to criticism of the old boys club in venture capital investment that tends to invest less in women led ventures. There are some indications that these trends are changing but its far from over. Much of the feminist literature that discusses entrepreneurship tends to look at differences between entrepreneurial entry rates and opportunities for women entrepreneurs as well as the systems and structures that cause the disparities between men and women. Hurley (1999) : "Traditional anthropological theories stated that the key factor in human evolution was the male’s hunting activities. The men developed the important social skills of  communication, co-operation and tool making, while women contributed little...Feminist theories showed that women’s activities were the key

Dynamic Capabilities Theory and Entrepreneurship

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Do entrepreneurs exhibit dynamic capabilities?  At the core of the theory of dynamic capabilities is the assumption that an organization's current resources and capabilities, which may be optimally suited to the current environmental conditions, will not likely be relevant under future conditions. Recognizing that changes in technologies, policies, and tastes make for a continuously evolving landscape of needs and wants, an organization needs to be able to respond. Organizations need to be able to transform their capabilities over time as needed to seize new opportunities. They also need to be continually sensing new opportunities. According to Teece (2007) : "the competitive advantage of firms stems from dynamic capabilities rooted in high performance routines operating inside the firm, embedded in the firm’s processes, and conditioned by its history" Responding to change How do they respond effectively to changes on the order of converging industries and inter

Information Asymmetry Theory and Entrepreneurship

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Information asymmetry refers to a conditions whereby two parties in a market or organizational relationship have access to different information about the exchange.  It can be seen as an alternative to the classical assumption of "perfect information" in economics. Information asymmetries have been acknowledged by regulators who have made laws forbidding insider trading. Insiders have special access to the real financial picture of a company and have an unfair advantage when buying and selling company stock ( Aboody, 2000 ). Company executives, like CEOs also have fiduciary responsibilities toward their investors which require them to be truthful and forthcoming. Information asymmetry is also a potential source of problems in entrepreneurship. For example, an entrepreneur knows much more about the real potential of their ventures because they have inside access to knowledge about their customers and the issues with production. The investors, on the other hand, have le

Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Entrepreneurship

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Could understanding the diffusion of innovations help in entrepreneurship? The diffusion of innovations has been studied by many scholars over the ages, but notably from 1970 onward by American sociologist Everett Rogers . Dr. Rogers was interested in trying to get farmers to adopt innovations (like farm equipment) that could better their lives and make their businesses more productive. He pondered the forces that lead some to adopt and others to abstain. Modeling adoption curves He suggests that different types of adopters: innovators, early adoptions, early majority, late majority and laggards have different adoption criteria. For instance, a strategy that may attract early adopters may not attract the early majority because they want different things. The size distributions of the different types of adopters (i.e., number of members of a particular adopter category), grow and then shrink giving rise to an inverted u-shaped curve, giving rise to the famous s-curve of total

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