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External Enabler Theory of Entrepreneurship

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The External Enabler Framework ( Davidsson, Recker & von Briel, 2020 ) is a conceptual toolbox developed for analyzing the strategic and fortuitous influence of changes to the business environment in entrepreneurial pursuits. External Enabler (EE) refers to significant changes to the business environment, such as new technologies, regulatory changes, macroeconomic shifts, demographic and sociocultural trends, changes to the natural environment, and the like. The basic assumption of the EE body of work is that every such change will benefit some entrepreneurial initiatives even if it disadvantages other economic activities. EE analysis focuses on those enabled; other frameworks are needed for analyzing negative consequences of change.  The EE concept was introduced as a more workable alternative to “objective opportunity” for realizing the idea of entrepreneurship as a nexus of enterprising agents and favorable environmental conditions ( Davidsson, 2015 ). Unlike the notion of obje

Addiction Theory of Entrepreneurship

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Could one become addicted to the idea of being an entrepreneur? Countries vary in terms of how their people view entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurship as a career path. In some places, entrepreneurship may be viewed negatively, or associated with corruption. However, the prevailing view of the entrepreneur in the Western Media is the heroic entrepreneur meme. These are often outsiders that manage to disrupt incumbencies and are associated with ideas such as democracy, freedom, and liberty. Perhaps the positive view of the practice has led to entrepreneurship becoming as a desirable pursuit for individuals searching for a lifestyle and character to identity with. These types of individuals have been given names over time including the "Wantrepreneur", Veblenian Entrepreneur or "Untrepreneur". These labels refer to individuals who pursue entrepreneurship not with innovative intentions, or a desire to solve a problem, or to satisfy a need--but solely to live the lifestyl

Born open startup

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What is a Born Open Startup? A startup that is born open is one that rejects the notion of proprietary knowledge appropriation (e.g,. obtaining patents ). In fact, software patents are probably the born open crowd's worst abomination.   Instead, a born open startup views itself as a part of a ecosystem of firms that work cooperatively and competitively. They typically are autonomous but have some interconnected goals. Open source startups participate in the development of a community of firms with a shared governing policy to prevent the appropriation of the technology. According to Mekki MacAulay, " Open strategy involves the collective production of a shared good in an open fashion such that the resulting product is available to all, including competitors. In the case of open entrepreneurship, 'born-open' startups are entrepreneurial ventures whose business models are designed specifically based around a collective good. Such business models can be effectiv

Neurodiversity and Entrepreneurship

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Mental disorders were previously studied as problems in need of remedies like medication, interventions, or counseling. A common misconception that exists today is that those with mental health disorders are incapable of the same things that neurotypical individuals are. Neurodivergent individuals often perceive and process information differently than what neurotypical individuals consider “normal”. However, that does not make them any less capable. In fact, in many instances, particularly in entrepreneurship, neurological disorders have been linked to success. In 2015, Freeman et al., (2015 ) conducted a study on 335 individuals including 242 entrepreneurs. The study revealed that 49% of the entrepreneurs reported having one or more lifetime mental health conditions. They were also significantly more likely to report a lifetime history of depression (30%), ADHD (29%), substance use conditions (12%) and bipolar diagnosis (11%) than were comparison participants. These results suggest t

Generativity Theory of Entrepreneurship

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Distinct from the popular medical/psychological definition of generativity, which defines the concept as a need to nurture and guide younger people and contribute to the next generation, the generativity theory in relation to entrepreneurship focuses on the development of technology stemming from the foundations set by previous innovations. According to Zittrain (2006, p. 1980) generativity refers to “technology’s overall capacity to produce unprompted change driven by large, varied, and uncoordinated audiences”. The keyword here being ‘unprompted’. Zittrain suggests that the innovations and outcomes are unintentional and occur without purposeful intent. He also notes that the outcomes of these activities in turn become the basis for future innovation. Yoo et al. (2010) expands on Zittrain’s definition and illustrates generativity as a layered model where innovation on one layer’s technology can have a cascading effect on other layers. An example of this is a camera using available